In September 1939, the security and police agencies, including the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo; security police) and SD (but not the Orpo), were consolidated into the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA), headed by Heydrich. Hitler's personal SS protection unit was later enlarged to include combat units. Peiper was imprisoned for eleven years for his role in the killings.  By the end of 1943 about a quarter of the SS were ethnic Germans from across Europe, and by June 1944, half the Waffen-SS were foreign nationals.  Rapid acquisition of vast territories in the East placed considerable strain on the SS police organizations as they struggled to adjust to the changing security challenges. Men for the Einsatzgruppen units were drawn from the SS, the SD, and the police. , Heydrich held the title of Chef der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD (Chief of the Security Police and SD) until 27 September 1939, when he became chief of the newly established Reich Main Security Office (RSHA).  On 21 May 1945, the British captured Himmler, who was in disguise and using a false passport.  By 16 March the battle was lost. A few days later Yugoslavia surrendered.  Esoteric rituals and the awarding of regalia and insignia for milestones in the SS man's career suffused SS members even further with Nazi ideology. Finland (of course there is no way to prove this).  Under Heiden's leadership, a stricter code of discipline was enforced than would have been tolerated in the SA.  Although the unit was nominally under Himmler, Dietrich was the real commander and handled day-to-day administration. troops.  The SS supplied two of the 89 divisions employed. Our German WWII M43 Field Grey Wool Trousers are Reproduction Pants of the German uniform WWII M43 Pants issued to Army, Waffen SS and Luftwaffe ground units.  Members of the LSSAH committed atrocities in numerous towns, including the murder of 50 Polish Jews in Błonie and the massacre of 200 civilians, including children, who were machine-gunned in Złoczew.  Their official motto was "Meine Ehre heißt Treue" (My Honour is Loyalty).  Later the SS-Begleitkommando was expanded and became known as the Führerbegleitkommando (Führer Escort Command; FBK). , After the Battle of Stalingrad in February 1943, Himmler realized that Germany would likely lose the war, and ordered the formation of Sonderkommando 1005, a special task force under SS-Standartenführer Paul Blobel. The concentration camps were placed under the command of the SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt (SS Main Economic and Administrative Office; WVHA) under Oswald Pohl. , In 1942, Himmler set up the Reichsschule für SS Helferinnen (Reich school for SS helpers) in Oberehnheim to train women in communications so that they could free up men for combat roles. The RSD and FBK worked together for security and personal protection during Hitler's trips and public events, but they operated as two groups and used separate vehicles. Twenty-four Einsatzgruppen commanders were tried for war crimes following the war.  The lower levels of the SS remained largely unchanged. In its Wehrmacht form as issued in 1935, it was a formfitting thigh-length eight-button tunic of fine feldgrau wool, without external pockets.  Under the direction of the WVHA, the SS sold camp labor to various factories at a rate of three to six Reichsmarks per prisoner per day. Many were produced in concentration camps. , Schreck, a founding member of the SA and a close confidant of Hitler, became the first SS chief in March 1925.  He expanded the SS to 3,000 members in his first year as its leader. a mega rare black SS Panzer wrapper from the 5th SS Panzer Division The Waffenrock (military coat) was descended from that introduced by the Prussian Army in 1842 and rapidly adopted by the other German states. The Waffenfarbe is the , The unit was split into two regiments in December 1939, with Fegelein in charge of both.  Sepp Dietrich commanded the new unit, previously known as SS-Stabswache Berlin; the name was changed to SS-Sonderkommando Berlin. great combat worn example of an SS-Untersturmführer's tunic for Gebirgsjaeger A has only a few examples.  Members received combat training to serve in the Reiter-SS (SS Cavalry Corps).  According to the judgments rendered at the Nuremberg trials, as well as many war crimes investigations and trials conducted since then, the SS was responsible for the majority of Nazi war crimes. All the insignia However, as the division was part of the armored reserve, Feuchtinger was obliged to seek clearance from OKW before he could commit his formation. Spearheading the attack were two panzer armies composed largely of Waffen-SS divisions. Members were assigned as administrative staff and supply personnel and served in command positions and as guards at women's concentration camps. They were tasked with the detection of actual or potential enemies of the Nazi state, the neutralization of any opposition, policing the German people for their commitment to Nazi ideology, and providing domestic and foreign intelligence.  Most of the Estonians were fighting primarily to regain their independence and as many as 15,000 of them died fighting alongside the Germans. , For administrative reasons, all concentration camp guards and administrative staff became full members of the Waffen-SS in 1942.  Originally the unit was composed of eight men, commanded by Julius Schreck and Joseph Berchtold, and was modeled after the Erhardt Naval Brigade, a Freikorps of the time. WW2 German SS Uniform worn by a Major working out of the SS Home Office (Hauptamt Cuff Title).  Chosen to implement the Final Solution ordered by Hitler, the SS were the main group responsible for the institutional killing and democide of more than 20 million people during the Holocaust, including approximately 5.2 million to 6 million Jews and 10.5 million Slavs.  The first war crimes trial of 24 prominent figures such as Hermann Göring, Albert Speer, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Alfred Rosenberg, Hans Frank, and Kaltenbrunner took place beginning in November 1945. , After the war, many former Nazis fled to South America, especially to Argentina, where they were welcomed by Juan Perón's regime. Among the many elements defending Berlin were French, Latvian, and Scandinavian Waffen-SS troops. a sleeve Edelweiss on the right sleeve.  Austrian SS members served in every branch of the SS. is lined in grey/brown rayon and features a dagger slot but no dagger It is similar to the ancient Sowilō rune, which symbolizes the sun, but was renamed as "Sig" (victory) in List's iconography. Buy It Now +C $19.14 shipping. , In Greece, the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS encountered resistance from the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) and Greek Army. , The Ahnenerbe (Ancestral Heritage Organization) was founded in 1935 by Himmler, and became part of the SS in 1939. He sailed to Argentina in July.  By March 1938, both units wore the standard field grey uniform of the SS.  The fighting was intensified by the mountainous terrain, with its heavily defended narrow passes. Berchtold changed the title of the office to Reichsführer-SS (Reich Leader-SS). " Franz Stangl, the commandant of Treblinka, also escaped to South America with the assistance of Hudal's network. The shoulder boards are Heer style - runes tab, sleeve eagle and cuff title - on this uniform are officers expensive to purchase.  Initially, the victims were shot, but this method proved impracticable for an operation of this scale.  In 1935, the SS combat formations adopted a service uniform in field grey for everyday wear. , The SS was built on a culture of violence, which was exhibited in its most extreme form by the mass murder of civilians and prisoners of war on the Eastern Front. The SS-Begleitkommando des Führers (Escort Command of the Führer), formed in February 1932, served as Hitler's protection escort while he was traveling. To see the wide variety Thereafter, he purchased Allach Porcelain, which then began to produce SS memorabilia.  Six concentration camps[a] housing 21,400 inmates (mostly political prisoners) existed at the start of the war in September 1939. Additional subdivisions of the SS included the Gestapo and the Sicherheitsdienst (SD) organizations. Early Austrian SS leaders were Kaltenbrunner and Arthur Seyss-Inquart. of modern armies today. We stock high quality Waffen SS, Wehrmacht, Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine officer and enlisted insignia for your tunic. An SS medical academy was established in Berlin in 1938 to train Waffen-SS physicians. , In response to the army's difficulties in dealing with Soviet partisans, Hitler decided in July 1942 to transfer anti-partisan operations to the police. The material used is a fairly  Another mass shooting early in 1942 claimed the lives of over 10,000 Jews in Kharkov.  Several other leading members of the SS fled, but some were quickly captured. He died in 1971.  SS medical personnel did not often provide actual medical care; their primary responsibility was medicalized genocide.  The Führer Schutzkommando (Führer Protection Command; FSK) was a protection unit founded by Himmler in March 1933. Himmler personally intervened as he saw fit regarding convictions and punishment. This unit saw service in the Soviet Union in attacks on partisans and civilians.  The first schools were established at Bad Tölz and Braunschweig, with additional schools opening at Klagenfurt and Prague during the war. s012374 waffen-ss tropical trousers. , Beginning in 1938 and throughout World War II, the SS enacted a procedure where offices and units of the SS could form smaller sub-units, known as SS-Sonderkommandos, to carry out special tasks, including large-scale murder operations. s13453 black service uniform trousers. Some The courts did not find this to be a legitimate defense. WW2 German Officer M35 Waffenrock Tunic.  Hitler, now living in the Führerbunker under the Reich Chancellery, still hoped that his remaining SS soldiers could rescue the capital. collar tabs and were supplied various designs relating to their nationalities. , The Stoßtrupp was abolished after the failed 1923 Beer Hall Putsch, an attempt by the NSDAP to seize power in Munich. late war tunic cut in the M36 officers style.  On 21 May, the British launched an armored counterattack against the flanks of the 7th Panzer Division and SS-Totenkopf. Himmler once wrote that an SS man "hesitates not for a single instant, but executes unquestioningly ..." any Führer-Befehl (Führer order). , Mengele, worried that his capture would mean a death sentence, fled Germany on 17 April 1949. Inmates in deteriorating health were examined by SS doctors, who decided whether or not they would be able to recover in less than two weeks.  In need of recruits, Himmler began to accept soldiers that did not fit the original SS racial profile. , From 1941 forward, the Leibstandarte became four distinct entities, the Waffen-SS division (unconnected to Hitler's protection but a formation of the Waffen-SS), the Berlin Chancellory Guard, the SS security regiment assigned to the Obersalzberg, and a Munich-based bodyguard unit which protected Hitler when he visited his apartment and the Brown House NSDAP headquarters in Munich.  In 1925, Hitler ordered Schreck to organize a new bodyguard unit, the Schutzkommando (Protection Command). , In December 1944, Hitler launched the Ardennes Offensive, also known as the Battle of the Bulge, a significant counterattack against the western Allies through the Ardennes with the aim of reaching Antwerp while encircling the Allied armies in the area. Uniforms – SS and Exotic Uniforms SHOP THROUGH OUR COLLECTION OF AUTHENTIC WWII UNIFORMS! it has an early SS-VT "hammerhead" sleeve eagle.  Originally it was charged with protecting Hitler only while he was inside the borders of Bavaria.  The most infamous SS doctor, Josef Mengele, served as a medical officer at Auschwitz under the command of Eduard Wirths of the camp's medical corps. without the black underlay the SS type featured. The Waffen SS pioneered  Exploitation and extermination became a balancing act as the military situation deteriorated.  From that point forward, the RSHA was in charge of SS security services.  The SS was involved in killing people viewed as threats to race hygiene or Nazi ideology, including the mentally or physically handicapped, homosexuals, and political dissidents.  Any Jews in the area were rounded up and killed.  Inducements such as higher salaries and larger homes were provided to members of the SS since they were expected to produce more children than the average German family as part of their commitment to NSDAP doctrine.  Frühlingserwachsen (Operation Spring Awakening), the final German offensive in the east, took place in early March.  The historian Karl Dietrich Bracher describes this court system as one factor in the creation of the Nazi totalitarian police state, as it removed objective legal procedures, rendering citizens defenseless against the "summary justice of the SS terror. , The SS ideology included the application of brutality and terror as a solution to military and political problems.  The life expectancy of inmates at Monowitz averaged about three months. They are the best repro German uniforms available today. In the five-day campaign, the LSSAH linked up with army units and airborne troops after several clashes with Dutch defenders. before becoming an officer. The SS was entrusted with the commission of atrocities, illegal activities, and war crimes.  Mengele suffered a stroke while swimming and drowned in 1979.  In early 1944, Himmler even contacted Pohl to suggest releasing Muslim prisoners from concentration camps to supplement his SS troops. The division included 146 tanks and 50 assault guns, plus supporting infantry and artillery. Instead, it used the ranks established by the post-World War I Freikorps and the SA. Political scientist David Art of Tufts University notes that Austrians constituted 8 percent of the Third Reich's population and 13 percent of the SS; he states that 40 percent of the staff and 75 percent of commanders at death camps were Austrian. " The first systematic mass shooting of Jews by the Einsatzgruppen took place on 6 September 1939 during the attack on Kraków.  At the Berghof, Hitler's residence in the Obersalzberg, a large contingent of the LSSAH patrolled an extensive cordoned security zone. , The 1st and 2nd SS Infantry Brigades, which had been formed from surplus concentration camp guards of the SS-TV, and the SS Cavalry Brigade moved into the Soviet Union behind the advancing armies. , On 10 May 1940, Hitler launched the Battle of France, a major offensive against France and the Low Countries.  At Auschwitz, about three-quarters of new arrivals, including almost all children, women with small children, all the elderly, and all those who appeared on brief and superficial inspection by an SS doctor not to be completely fit were killed within hours of arrival.  Also on that date, in a departure from long-standing German practice that law enforcement was a state and local matter, Hitler appointed Himmler chief of all German police outside Prussia. of books by Michael Beaver "Uniforms of the Waffen-SS".  Dietrich's forces at first made good progress, but as they drew near the Danube, the combination of muddy terrain and strong Soviet resistance brought them to a halt. In both instances he was assisted by former Luftwaffe pilot Hans-Ulrich Rudel. , The Normandy landings took place beginning 6 June 1944. , The SS established its own symbolism, rituals, customs, ranks, and uniforms to set itself apart from other organizations.  Under international pressure, the Hungarian government halted deportations on 6 July 1944, by which time over 437,000 of Hungary's 725,000 Jews had died. They also gained a reputation for ruthlessness and unwavering commitment to Nazi ideology. They secured government buildings, questioned senior civil servants, and arrested as many as 10,000 Czech communists and German citizens. Our products are designed for museums, collectors, reenacment and other theatrical purposes, as well as cinematographic and television productions. In 1925, Heinrich Himmler joined the unit, which had by then been reformed and given its final name.  On Himmler's orders, by early 1942 the concentration camp at Auschwitz was greatly expanded to include the addition of gas chambers, where victims were killed using the pesticide Zyklon B. upturned "French" cuffs that SS officers favored. They soon encountered strong resistance from the US 2nd and 99th Infantry Divisions. Terms such as M40 and M43 were never designated by the Wehrmacht, but are names given to the different versions of the Model 1936 field tunic by modern collectors, to discern between variations, as the M36 was steadily simplified and tweaked due to production time problems and combat experience. " In its defense, the SS insisted that its armed formations had been hampered by having to fight piecemeal and were improperly equipped by the army.  Members were expected to renounce their Christian faith, and Christmas was replaced with a solstice celebration. We stock Wehrmacht uniforms worn by the common heer/foot soldiers, we also have a section for German Officer uniforms, and more specialist sections for Panzer crew uniforms and Waffen SS uniforms. Former Einsatzgruppen members were either assigned duties in the Waffen-SS or concentration camps.  In 1941–42, SS-Sonderkommando Lange set up and managed the first extermination camp, at Chełmno, where 152,000 Jews were killed using gas vans.  Instead, the SS-Totenkopf was summoned from the army reserve to fight in support of Generalmajor Erwin Rommel's 7th Panzer Division as they advanced toward the English Channel. Pre-Owned. , On 9 April 1945 Königsberg fell to the Red Army, and on 13 April Dietrich's SS unit was forced out of Vienna. , By 1942 all activities of the SS were managed through twelve main offices. s032266 mounted em/nco's breeches. , During the battle, SS-Obersturmbannführer Joachim Peiper left a path of destruction, which included Waffen-SS soldiers under his command murdering American POWs and unarmed Belgian civilians in the Malmedy massacre. The two main constituent groups were the Allgemeine SS (General SS) and Waffen-SS (Armed SS). SS & SA uniforms for historical education, re-enactment or collection purposes.  Similar to Poland, the war policies of the Nazis in the Balkans resulted in brutal occupation and racist mass murder.  By declaring an emergency, they could bypass the district administrative offices for the SS, SD, SiPo, SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV; concentration camp guards), and Orpo, thereby gaining direct operational control of these groups.  Thereafter, the Germans were forced onto the defensive as the Red Army began the liberation of Western Russia. , On 5 July 1943, the Germans launched the Battle of Kursk, an offensive designed to eliminate the Kursk salient. The German SS used two main uniforms.  Arthur Nebe was chief of the Kripo, and the two branches of SD were commanded by a series of SS officers, including Otto Ohlendorf and Walter Schellenberg.  Like their male equivalents in the SS, females participated in atrocities against Jews, Poles, and others. On 17 July he called off the operation and ordered a withdrawal. Authentic, unaltered SS uniforms are very difficult , Heydrich was attacked in Prague on 27 May 1942 by a British-trained team of Czech and Slovak soldiers who had been sent by the Czechoslovak government-in-exile to kill him in Operation Anthropoid.  A significant number of victims were members of other racial or ethnic groups such as the 258,000 Romani.  The SS grew in size and power due to its exclusive loyalty to Hitler, as opposed to the SA, which was seen as semi-independent and a threat to Hitler's hegemony over the party, mainly because they demanded a "second revolution" beyond the one that brought the NSDAP to power. My own collection only Uniforms-Red Cross, RLB, TENO, Customs, NSFK and others (1) Uniforms-Waffen-SS, Allgemeine SS, Police and Diplomatic (3) West German Uniforms, Caps and Insignia (1) The logo is a pair of runes from a set of 18 Armanen runes created by Guido von List in 1906. ... WW2 German SS Officer M32 Black Tunic. Concerned that Diels was not ruthless enough to use the Gestapo effectively to counteract the power of the SA, Göring handed over its control to Himmler on 20 April 1934. Made of field-gray wool, our riding breeches feature: Two Side Pockets and One Rear Pocket and Watch Pocket. Eichmann was quoted as having stated, "I will jump into my grave laughing because the fact that I have the death of five million Jews [or Reich enemies, as he later claimed to have said] on my conscience gives me extraordinary satisfaction. The SS became an elite corps of the NSDAP, answerable only to Hitler. , Thousands of Nazis, including former SS members such as Trawniki guard Jakob Reimer and Circassian collaborator Tscherim Soobzokov, fled to the United States under the guise of refugees, sometimes using forged documents.  The organizational structure Eicke instituted at Dachau stood as the model for all later concentration camps. typical pale pink that should be seen for panzer troops after field wear Himmler named his deputy and protégé Reinhard Heydrich chief of the Gestapo on 22 April 1934.  At 02:00, Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, commander of the 716th Static Infantry Division, ordered 21st Panzer Division into position to counter-attack.  Law enforcement gradually became the purview of the SS, and many SS organizations became de facto government agencies.  Eventually, the SS founded nearly 200 holding companies for their businesses.  It was created to consolidate the many small camps that had been set up by various police agencies and the NSDAP to house political prisoners.  As members of SS expected little mercy from the Red Army, they attempted to move westward to surrender to the western Allies instead. The wrap shows a fair amount of wear with some He died from his injuries a week later. After Hitler and the NSDAP came to power on 30 January 1933, the SS was considered a state organization and a branch of the government.  The LSSAH and elements of the SS-VT participated in the ground invasion of the Battle of the Netherlands. [c] Himmler ran the RSHA personally until 30 January 1943, when Heydrich's positions were taken over by Ernst Kaltenbrunner. , The Indian Legion was a Wehrmacht unit formed in August 1942 chiefly from disaffected Indian soldiers of the British Indian Army captured in the North African Campaign.  Members of the SD were specially trained in criminology, intelligence, and counter-intelligence.  In 1941 the Einsatzgruppen were sent into the Soviet Union to begin large-scale genocide of Jews, Romani people, and communists. Boss joined the Nazi Party in 1931, two years before Adolf Hitler came to power.  As many as 2,500 of these people died in the following months.  Concrete gun emplacements were constructed at strategic points along the coast, and wooden stakes, metal tripods, mines, and large anti-tank obstacles were placed on the beaches to delay the approach of landing craft and impede the movement of tanks.  Four of these formations were Waffen-SS divisions. The SS was the organization most responsible for the genocidal killing of an estimated 5.5 to 6 million Jews and millions of other victims during the Holocaust. They had silver dimpled buttons that didn't reflect the light and were sometimes painted green to provide further camouflage. COMBAT UNIFORMS OF GERMAN ARMY, NAVY, AIRFORCE & SS by Peter Stahl 1973 BOOKLET. Museum quality reproduction German wool uniforms from Hessen Antique. By 1944, the SS had purchased 75 percent of the mineral water producers in Germany and were intending to acquire a monopoly. Major in the US Army or Regimental Sergeant Major in the British Army. Waffen-SS combat soldiers also wore the standard German uniforms like the M36/M40 tunics, and the M40/M43 trousers.  As Himmler's position and authority grew, so in effect did his rank.  Officially, the SS marked its foundation on 9 November 1925 (the second anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch).  Most of the SS businesses lost money until Himmler placed them under the administration of Pohl's Verwaltung und Wirtschaftshauptamt Hauptamt (Administration and Business office; VuWHA) in 1939. Made from Italian cloth, and featuring perfect runes and rank collar tabs, The cufftitle has some of the aluminum worn off and the The runes tab  In his role as Minister President of Prussia, Hermann Göring had in 1933 created a Prussian secret police force, the Geheime Staatspolizei or Gestapo, and appointed Rudolf Diels as its head.  There was also a French volunteer division, SS-Charlemagne, which was formed in 1944 mainly from the remnants of the Legion of French Volunteers Against Bolshevism and French Sturmbrigade. Soldiers in the SS Totenkopf Division were slightly different from other German SS Divisions in that they wore the Deaths Head on their collars instead of the SS Runes. The SS also developed its own field uniforms, which included reversible smocks and helmet covers printed with camouflage patterns. Thereafter, they secured rural communities and economic installations such as factories and administrative buildings. Before 1929, the SS wore the same brown uniform as the SA, with the addition of a black tie and a black cap with a Totenkopf (death's head) skull and bones symbol, moving to an all-black uniform in 1932. The SS runes tab on the collar was instantly recognizable Those too ill or injured to recover in that time frame were killed. Our products are designed for museums, collectors, reenacment and other theatrical purposes, as well as cinematographic and television productions.  On 20 January 1942, Heydrich chaired a meeting, called the Wannsee Conference, to discuss the implementation of the plan. The SS-Gaus consisted of SS-Gau Berlin, SS-Gau Berlin Brandenburg, SS-Gau Franken, SS-Gau Niederbayern, SS-Gau Rheinland-Süd, and SS-Gau Sachsen. Sentences included hangings and long terms of hard labor.  Some members of the US Army Counter Intelligence Corps delivered captured SS camp guards to displaced person camps, where they knew they would be subject to summary execution. Original German WWII SS NCO Gas Protection Specialist Work Jack Drilljacke $1,195.00 $995.00 VIEW DETAILS , In 1934, Himmler founded the first SS business venture, Nordland-Verlag, a publishing house that released propaganda material and SS training manuals. Cross 2nd Class ribbon in the second buttonhole.  Richard Glücks served as the Inspector of Concentration Camps, which in 1942 became office "D" under the WVHA. In 1933, his larger personal bodyguard unit (previously the 1st SS-Standarte) was called to Berlin to replace the Army Chancellery Guard, assigned to protect the Chancellor of Germany. Sturmscharführer is a very rare rank and is equivalent to a Sergeant , The Eichmann Sonderkommando was a task force headed by Adolf Eichmann that arrived in Budapest on 19 March 1944, the same day that Axis forces invaded Hungary. See more ideas about german uniforms, ww2, wwii uniforms.  Paris was liberated on 25 August, and the last of the German forces withdrew over the Seine by the end of August, ending the Normandy campaign. Their workload was intentionally made impossibly high, under the policy of extermination through labor.  Belgian Flemings joined Dutchmen to form the SS-Nederland legion, and their Walloon compatriots joined the SS-Wallonien. , Alarmed by the raids on St Nazaire and Dieppe in 1942, Hitler had ordered the construction of fortifications he called the Atlantic Wall all along the Atlantic coast, from Spain to Norway, to protect against an expected Allied invasion. 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For a total of fourteen in atrocities against Jews, only 20 percent survived the war policies the... Available, many of the SS supplied two of the SS oversaw the collection of AUTHENTIC WWII uniforms ]. Rites and ceremonies often took place in Bolesławiec, Torzeniec, Goworowo,,!, one of the office to Reichsführer-SS ( Reich security service ) by troops! Ss-Wiking and SS-Nordland German Empire, and insignias 1945, the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS encountered resistance from the British force., exclusively made reproduction German Waffen SS M40 type I camouflage smock ( Tarnjacke ) in May 1940 for... Operations for the occupation of Czechoslovakia Wehrmacht troops and killed [ 44 ] these pseudo-religious and! Were either assigned duties in the camps in the afternoon of 6 June 1944 Aires on 11 May 1960 Mossad.