Appetizer 24 / CARDINAL NUMBERS / Day 1 of 1
GENERAL AIMS
 To introduce or see how well students know the numbers from 1 to 999,999,999
 To point out some tips on how to pronounce them well and have the students practice the numbers
 To increase the students’ confidence in their use of the numbers
STEP SUMMARY
A 
Intro to chart 
Grouping numbers 

B 
Teacher/Student 
Students practice in pairs 

C 
Future classes 
Some pointers 
RECOMMENDED LEVELS
Beginner to intermediate +
ACTIVITY TIME
15 – 20 minutes
MATERIALS
 Board, screen or flip chart
 Handouts for class:
HO8 9 rows of numbers
SPECIAL NOTES
– Note 1
– Note 2
Quickpage
Class Plan
PART A: INTRO TO CHART & NUMBERS
The idea is to ask a number of students to say the numbers you are progressively pointing to on Handout #8 in a way that everyone can see. This is to provide a clear model of what they will later be expected to do and to clarify any doubts they may have about how to say the numbers. How quickly or gradual you present the numbers depends much on the level of the class you are addressing. 
A  STEP 1  1 – 999 HOW TO APPROACH BOTTOM 3 ROWS NUMBERS 1999  
a)  Go to one student, bring HO8 (Handout #8) and using a pen, point to number one in the bottom row to elicit ‘1’ from that student.  
b)  Go to the next student, point to number two and elicit ‘2’.  
c)  Continue with more students until ‘9’.  
d)  To elicit ‘10’ from the next student, tap number ‘1’ in the second last row and ‘0’ in the bottom row. (The students should be able to figure it out from the buildup you have been presenting.)  
e)  For the following student, point (tap) your pen to the ‘1’ in the second last row and then the ‘1’ in the last row, eliciting ‘11’. Continue with a few more examples (12, 13, 14,…), then try new combinations. For example, for one student point out ‘24’ and the next ‘86’.  
f)  optional You may want to ask one student two ‘similar’ numbers like 13 & 30 and continue with the other students (14 & 40 etc). There is an audio below if you’d like to later direct their attention to listening and repeating those tricky pairings if they do have some difficulty with them.  
g)  Coming to the close of this part of the presentation, for the next three students, indicate ‘98’, ‘99’, and ‘100’ (tapping a ‘1’ in the third last row, and the two zeroes in the bottom two rows).  
h)  Try a few more combinations using 3 digits such as 111, 115, 550, or 678 before you introduce the sequence of 998, 999 and 1,000. (1,000 is indicated by tapping ‘1’ in the bottom row of the middle group of 3 rows followed by the three zeroes in the lower 3 rows.)  
i)  If the class is a low level one which needs time to assimilate the information, then skip the instructions in the next step and go directly to Part B where the students practice only one group of 3 rows (numbers 1 – 999, nothing higher). When they are ready, perhaps in a future class, proceed with Part A, STEP 2 where they learn how to deal with the higher numbers. 
TENS & TEENS – APPAUD7
Students listen to and repeat the numbers
30, 13 40, 14 50, 15 60, 16 70, 17 80, 18 90, 19
A  STEP 2  1 – 999,999,999 USING ALL 3 GROUPS ON HO8 NUMBERS 1999  
a)  After presenting the numbers 1 – 999, introduce the students to numbers up to 999,999. For the lower levels I recommend spending a little more time here to anticipate some doubts a few students might have. Try:
1,000 9,000 10,000 100,000 11,000 110,000 111,000 111 111,111 After these (or other) examples, you can elicit or point out that if somebody can say a threedigit number (ex: 567), they can just as easily say a sixdigit number (567,567) or a ninedigit number (567,567,567) as you would say it in the same way, but inserting the words thousand or million when appropriate. 

b)  optional If it is a lower level class and they need more time to assimilate, then have them practice in pairs as explained in Part B, but only with numbers from 1 – 999,999.  
c)  Now jump to 1,000,000, followed by 1,000,001 1,000,002 1,111,111 111,000,000 111,111,111 222,222,222 456,456,456 and 999,999,999 (Ask different students each time as you did before) 

d)  Write the number 987,987,987 on the board and elicit the spelling. (This provides a clear reference to some potential doubts they may have.) Here is one way you could write it:


987,987,987  nine hundred and eightyseven million – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – thousand – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 

e)  Respond to any questions and remind them that the spoken and written ‘and’ follows the hundreds, not the thousands (as in two thousand find hundred and sixtyseven). The dotted lines on the handout refer to millions and thousands and mark off those corresponding groups of numbers. 
PART B: TEACHER / STUDENT
B  1 STEP  TEACHER/STUDENT PAIRWORK PRACTICE NUMBERS 1999  
a)  Have one student ask you one or two numbers (from one to nine digits long) on the handout.  
b)  Point out that it shouldn’t be a memory exercise, tapping out a difficult set of numbers to remember (such as 285,691,374). Use the same number or simple sequences like 888,888,888 or 123,123,123.  
c)  Put the students into pairs and give each a copy of HO8. If there is an odd number of students, have one ‘teacher’ and two ‘students’, but the teacher alternates the numbers between the two students to keep them both actively involved.  
d)  Tell each teacher to point out numbers five or six times, then change roles with the student. They continue practicing and changing roles until you have had a chance to monitor each group, making sure they understand the expectations as well as saying the numbers correctly.  
e)  To end the activity, follow it up with a brief summary of their progress, pointing out issues that arose like incorrect or unclear pronunciation, confusion between hundred & thousand, and when to say ‘and’. 
PART C: SOME POINTERS
C  1 STEP  SOME POINTERS NUMBERS 0999 
Once the students know how to use the number chart, it becomes easy to use it in future classes. If the class is at a low level, they will likely need further practice to strengthen their understanding and use. For somewhat higher levels you can go through the examples and points at a faster pace. For low or intermediate levels, intermittently use this activity (the teacher/student pairwork activity using HO8) on occasion in future classes just so they don’t forget some of the points and they can work on better fluency.
A few points: ●Pronunciation in groups of 3 ●Fluidity ●Stress in pronunciation ●Singular form for adjectives ●Thousands vs ten thousands CORRECT: There were thousands of people. There were thousands. There were eight thousand people. 